21. The Treaty of Portsmouth & Memorial ringing

Japanese version is here

Shoji Sugita

Most young Japanese might not be interested in the issue of The Treaty of Portsmouth whenever they
hear it, but for most of the aged Japanese it would be heard with some dear feelings.
Well, the Treaty was signed in September 1905, in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the U. S. at the end
of the war between Japan and Russia, and as concerns to it , there would be the following comments
in the world.
œ A small Asian country, yellow race, Japan beated a big European country, white race, Russia. It's
an amazing happening in the world.
œ The President of the U. S. : Theodore Roosevelt made much effort to the agreement of the Treaty,
but he was afraid that Japan might be the most powerful country in Asia in the future, too.
œ Baron Komura, Jutaro : Minister for Foreign Affairs was invested with full power of signing the Treaty
and he worked hard so much to signe it, but a lot of Japanese condemned him as " Humiliating diplomacy "
of it. In fact, after agreement of both countries, there had been some riots like " the Riot of the
Hibiya Park " in Tokyo and some others all over Japan.
œ As concerns of the Treaty, Japan gave up to get indemnity : Yen 400 million from Russia, and only
could get southern Sakhalin and some others.
œ In fact,the Japanese government and the Japanese military headquarters understood the difficult
situations of the battle fields and their financial problems, even though Japanese troops had won
some big battles in Manchuria and in the Japan Sea. They were not only brave and wise, but also were
so cautious to the situations and the problems, particulary to the opinions of the world.
They decided for the best.
œ But, after the War, they had been too self-confident to go on their ways and gradually would go
on more or less the wrong way for Japan. Generally speaking, heroes shall be respectable for the people,
but we should teach them not to be too respectable toward us, too.
œ In About 1905, Imperilism was the world principle of the strong countries and unfortunately Japan
stepped on such a stage as the last character.
( Note ) The War : Japan an Russia in 1904 - 05
E February 4, 1904,..... Japanese Government decided to begin the War, and declared it to Russia in
February 10.
E September 5, 1905,... The Treaty was signed.
E Number of Japanese dead soldiers ........ 46.423
E Number of Japanese injured soldiers ...... about 160.000
E War Expenditure ......... 198.4 million yen ( compared, 6 times of National Budget of Japan's at that
time )
œ Japanese Government had raised foreign loan : 70.0 million yen in London, New York, Berlin and
used them as the war expenditures.
Now I will research some documents and items of the Treaty of Portsmouth on WWWs, and will
sumarize them with some comments of mine.
‡T. English documents and News items
1. Russo - Japanese Relations : Cited from Fact sheet released by the Bureau of Eeast Asian and
Pacific Affairs, U.S. Department of State.
œ Key points
Following Japan's victory in the Russo - Japanese War of 1904-05, Russo ceded to Japan the southern
half Sakhalin island.
2. The Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905 - September 5, 1905. The Conclusion of the Russo - Japanese War,
signed at Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Cited from Peter E. Randall, Publisher, 1985
œ Key points
Article ‡U
The Imperial Russian Government acknowledge that Japan possesses in Korea paramount political
military and economical interest engages neither to obstruct nor interfere with measures for guidance,
protection and control which the Imperial Government of Japan may find necessary to take in Korea.
Article ‡V
To evacuate completely and simultaneously Manchuria, except the territory affected by the lease of the
Liaotung Peninsula in conformity with the provisions of the additiona article‡Tannexed to this treaty.
Article ‡W
Japan and Russia reciprocally engage not to obstruct any general measures common to all countries
which China may take for the development of the commerce or industry of Manchuria.
Article ‡X
The Imperial Russian Government transfers and assigns to the Imperial Government of Japan with the
consent of the Government of China, the lease of Port Arthur, Talien and the adjacent territorial waters,
and all rights, privileges and concessions connected with or forming part of such lease, and it also
transfers and assigns to the Imperial government of Japan all public works and properties in the
territory affected by the above-mentioned lease.
Article ‡Y
The Imperial Russian Government engages to transfer and assign to the Imperial Government of Japan ,
without compensation and with the consent of the Chinese Government, the railway between Chang-
chunfu and Kuanchangtsu and Port Arthur,...
Article ‡Z
Japan and Russia engage to expliot their respective railway in Manchuria exclusively for commercial and
industrial purposes and nowise for strategic purposes. It is understood that this restriction does not apply
to the railway in the territory affected by the lease of the Liaotung Pennisula.
Article ‡\
The Imperial Russian Government cedes to the Imperial Government of Japan in perpetuity and full
sovereignty the southern portion of the islands of Sakhalin and all the islands adjacent thereto and the
public works and properties thereon. The fiftieth degree of north latitude is adopted as the northern
boundary of the ceded territory.
Japan and Russia mutually agree not to construct in their respective possessions on the island of
Sakhalin or the adjacent islands any fortification or other similar military works.
Article ‡]‡T
Russia engages to arrange with Japan for granting to Japan subjects rights of fishery along the coasts of
the Russian possession in the Japan, Okhotsk and Bering Sea.
3. Portsmouth, Treaty of ... Cited from Infoplease. com. Encyclopedia
œ Key points
1905, treaty ending the Russia - Japanese War. It was signed at the Portsmouth Naval Base, New
Hampshire,on Sept. 5, 1905. Negotiations leading up to the treaty began in the spring of 1905 when
Russia had suffered severe defeats and Japan was in financial difficulties. Therefore, both nations
indicated a desire for peace.
Germany, the United States, and Great Britain were instrumental in forcing concilation between the
belligerents.However, the United States and Britain exacted certain concessions from Japan before
smoothing the way for the treaty. President Theodore Roosevelt demanded that Japan follow the Open
policy in Manchuria and return the region to Chinese administration.
In the Taft-Katsura agreement of July, 1905, Roosevelt agreed to Japanese dominance Korea in return
for American freedom of action in the Philippines. Grea Britain had the Anglo-Japanese treaty extended
to cover all of E. Asian and in return also gave Japan a free hand in Korea.
( Note ) Open Door policy
Maintenance in a certain territory of equal commercial and industrial rights for the nationals of all countries.
As a specific policy, it was first advanced by the United States, but it was rooted in the typical
most-favored -nation clause of the treaties concluded with China after the Opium War ( 1839 - 42 ). Althouth
the Open Door is generally associated with China, it also received recognition at the Berlin Conference
of 1885, which declared that not power levy preferential duties in the Congo basin.
3. Informations of the Treaty in Portsmouth - city
There are no informations of the Treaty in the City of Portsmouth on WWWs, so I asked them of it,through
using E-mail. The following is the reply to it : Thanks, Shoji Sugita
Expert's Reply: There is no mansion related to the Treaty of Portsmouth. The discussions between the
parties and the actual signing took place at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. The conference building still
exists and one roomis devoted to the treaty story. The parties stayed at the Hotel Wentworth in New
Castle, NH. The building has been closed for a decade, but within the past few days, a plan was
announced to remodel and reopen the old hotel.
-- Peter Randall
( Editor's Note : Peter Randall is author of " There Are No Victors Here ", A Local Perspective on the Treaty
of Portsmouth. Portsmouth Marine Society Press. JDR )
‡U Japanese documents and News items
1. Traveller's report
œ Ohira Tetsu " Hiron ", Traveller's report
He found only a book, " Peter E. Randal, Local Perspective on the Treaty of Portsmout " at a bookstore
in Portsmouth, and also described that there were very few people that knew about the Treaty.
And he introduced an episode that in 1905, a poor Japanese emigrant visited the Komura's Party to
devote 1 dollar to his native country :Japan.
œ Yoshida, Takashi," Internet photographical research ", Photograph album
He found the same book as above-described in Portsmouth, too and also found the remains of the hotel
where Komura's Party had stayed.
2. Historical monograph
œ Historical Circumstances of Hakkaido, " History of National Borde "
Simple description of the Treaty of Portsmouth and a map connected to it.
œ Niwunemu University, "Opinion of Noethern Japan "
Simple description of the fact that T. Roosevelt devoted to the both nations; Japan and Russia, and
Russia refused the demand of indemnity from Japan and Japan got only southern Sakhalin and fishing
rights and some others.
3. Biographies and Memorial Halls
œ International Community CenterE Komura Memmorial Hall ( Nichiman-city )
In 1993, opened. The story and exhibition of Komura's and a model of the room signed the Treaty in
œ Dreamful person : Asaka Kanichi
The story of excellent achievements of world - famous historian; Asaka,Kanichi, and his devotion to Japan.
œ Photogrph album: Takahira, Kogoro
A member of Komura's Party. His story and memorial deed.
‡V Comments ( S. Sugita )
œ As I described here, most of Japanese documents and news items are simple travellers' reports and
some biographies and memorial halls of Komura's and some others. They are inferior to written English
documents and news items on the points of objective and analytical explanation of the Treaty.
œ So, I will expect Japanese educators who are teaching Modern History to the students in schools
today to study the Treaty of Portsmouth written in English more.
œ Well, we have to consider about the purpose of history now. There, the most important points are
analized and the real circumstances of the world at that time were considered wise and at many sided.
People might sometimes exagerate the facts like " Hakuhats 3.000 Jo : White beard grew up to
5.400 meter " Real historians shall not be dazzled with such overstated expressions and opinions.
œ Some Japanese used to complain to the youth of less-love of Our Country, but also they have to
study real historical facts wisely and multilaterally by themselves.
œ Fortunately, there are such good documents and explanations of the Treaty of Portsmouth written in
Englis on WWWs, standing on this points.
Japan's Northern Territories: Cited from : http//www.infojapan.org/region/europe/russia/territory/
Described at the end of March, 1999
In addition : Memorial ringing of the Treaty
Recently I received the following informations about the Treaty of Portsmout from Mrs. Houde :
" Last week marked the 97th Anniversary of the Signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth ending the
war between Japan and Russia. I'm am not sure what to write to you, but I wanted you to know
that Thursday, September 5, the bells in Portsmouth and Kittery, Maine (where Portsmouth
Naval Shipyard is located) rang for one minute beginning at 3:47 p.m. There were whistles at
the Shipyard, too. Most things came to a standstill. The time the treaty was signed so long ago ".

" Your website is correct in saying that the Wentworth Hotel (where Kamura stayed) is in horrible
shape. There is a group of people trying to raise money to repair and preserve it as a historical
site. I am not sure what is happening with that. I believe that the building the Treaty was signed
in continues to stand at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard".

" The ringing of the bells and the re-enactment of the signing of the treaty happens every year. I
do believe that they are trying to have a large ceremony for the 100th anniversary coming up in
2005. I will try to check into that for you as well. I am sending this with hopes that all is well in
your part of the world ".

The Citizens and Mrs. Houde, thank you very much for your hospitalities !
Described in September 2002