27-2 How to evaluate teachers in Japan ?

Shoji Sugita
How to evaluate teachers of public schools is becoming an emergent problem in Japan now.
Of course, we have some evaluation systems of certified teachers now, but these are almost only
formal ones and are not useful in fact, for after World War 2, Japanese have been worked harder
and harder joint together in groups without real evaluation systems, and they think it would have
been better for them to achieve good results in any society.
This way would not have been exceptional on evaluation system of teachers, too.
But recently, most companies, enterprises, cooperatives and some others began to put more
value on individual responsibility and began to adopt new evaluation systems by themselves.
So, like the last runner, we have to adopt a new system of teachers in Japanese public schools.
And last year, in 1999,The Board of Education of Tokyo Metropolitan adopted a new evaluation system,
but it is not yet perfect now, so we have to research more and have to make better ones all over Japan.
T Suggestion
● We have to get guidelines of evaluation procedures of teachers ruled by National Government and
 Prefectural Governmet.
● Concern to evaluators, there shall be not only principals and vice-principals, but also shall be
 more evaluators that have training for evaluating teachers by the Government.
● System of peer evaluators may be useful in Japan, for Japanese are skillful of it traditionaly.
 Of course,they shall be trained by the Government.
● Some other systems of goal-based evaluation might be available in Japan, for Japanese teachers
 would be sensitive, somewhat sentimental and proudful in nature, so these would be effective
 in Japanese schools.
● It is natural to connect teache's salary with evaluationg teachers, but the it would be better
 not to classify so many and would be better 3- 5 classified with more thickness of the middle
 class in Japan, for Japanese teachers are usually skillful to cooperate with each other in groups,
 and it would be more effective in school performances, too.
U Summary of key points of informations in U.S.A
Now, I will describe some key points of informations, documents and messages of evaluation
systems of full-time teachers in the U.S., and some of them are taken on WWWs by me and some
are from messages to me from staff , under described. I appreciate them so much.
( Note: " san " = Mr. Mrs. Miss. Ms. in Japan, and it sounds familiar. " sama " is more official. )
● Paul M. Felix-san : Assistant Director of Human Resouces for Tucson Nnified School District
              in Tucson, Arizona
● Lynette Kotsay-Beard-san: Public Information Dept. Jefferson County Public Schools, Colorado
● Barbara Lautenbach-san: Program Assistant Office of professional Services, Colorado Department
                    of Education
● Dale Kimble-san: Garrett County, Maryland
● Allen Russell-san: Physical Education Specialist, Columbine Elementary School, Colorado
● Bob West. Ph.D: Chief Deputy Supt. Idaho Department of Education, Idaho
● Barbara Green-san: Indiana Professional Standards Board, Indiana
● Smith, Scott-san: Burke County, North Carolina
● Dr.Valene Truesdale: Chief Instructional Services Officer, School District Five of Lexington and
                  Richland Counties, South Carolina
● Dr. Rollin Mills: Coordinator of Employee Assessment and Development, Lexington School
             District one, South Carolina
● Margaret B. Walden-san: Instructional Services Coordinator, Richland School District Two, South
● LANDIS Tamye-san: the state of Oregon
Code and Statues
Arizona State Code, Title 15-537 Performance of certificated teachers; evaluation system
 D. The governing board shall designate person who are qualified to evaluate teachers to serve as
  evaluators for the district's teacher performance evaluation system. The governing board shall ensure
  that persons evaluating teachers are qualified to evaluate teachers.

 F. Each evaluation shall include recommendations as to areas of improvement in the performance of
  the certificated teacher if the performance of the teacher warrants improvement. After transmittal of
  of an assessment a board designee shall confer with the teacher to make special recommendations
  as to areas of improvement in the teacher's performance.
California, Education Code, Section 44666
  .. However, the Legislature does intend to encourage schools to foster more professional collaboration
  where teachers and principals as an educational team, are responsible for creating the conditions that
  make more effective teaching and learning possible, and where schoolsite educators as a group have
  resposibility for the functioning and performance of their school.
  Hierarchical decisionmaking has tended to reduce the effectiveness and produtivity of teachers in
  educating pupils. A more collaborative decisionmaking process may result in more effective teaching
  and pupil learning.
  A true profession should offer individuals the opportunity for growth in their carees and in their
  professional lives.
44667: It is the intend of the Legislature to encourage shool district to plan and implement alternative
  models of school-base management projects or advanced career opportunities for classroom
  teachers projects or a combination of both, for one or more schools in the district. Further, it is the
  intent of the Legislature that school district governing boards and adminstrators work with classroom
  teacher's and teacher bargaining units to develop and strengthen procedures that increase teachrs
  decisionmaking authority in responsibilities that affect their ablity to teach.
Colorado, Mesa County Valley School District 51, Evaluation of Certificated Staff
  The methods of evaluation shall include, but not be limited to direct observations by the evaluator
  in a process of systematic data-gathering. Information collection during the evalation process will
  be done through direct and indirect data sources.
  Direct sources of data colletion shall include, but not be limited to, classroom observations, staff
  team meetings and extracurricular activities. Indirect sources shall include, but not be limited to
  feedback from parents, students and collegues. All data on which an evaluation judgement is based
  will be documented to the extent possibel and available for the staff member's review.
  Nothing in this policy shall be construed to imply in any manner the establishment of any property
  rights or expectancy or entitlement to continued employment not explicity established statute, Board
  policy or contract. Neither shall this policy and or the evaluation system be deemed or construed
  to establish any conditions prerequisite relative to renewal of contracts, transfer, assignment,
  dismissal or other employment decisions relating to school personnel.
And Colorado Code, Article 9 Certificated Personnel Evaluations is available, too.
New Jersey, Policy, Supervision and Evaluation of Instructional Personnel
  Criteria must include but not be limited to consideration of pupil progress; instructional skills; subject
  knowledge; professional conduct and growth; human relations skills; classroom management skills.
  The evaluation procedures shall provide continuous, constructive, cooperative interaction and
  communication between the teaching staff member and his/her supervisor/evaluator,thus ensuring
  a valid basis for performance reviw. All procedures for the evaluation of teaching staff members shall
  be in compliance with law and regulation.
Idaho Statutes: Title 33 Education Chapter 5, 33-515
  Before a board of trustees can determine not to renew for reasons of an unsatisfactory report of the
  perfomance of any certificatie person whose any such person at a reduced salary. Such person shall
  be entitled to a reasonable period of probation.
North Carolina, Evaluation Procedures: Comberland County Schools
  If the individual is in a low-perfoming school, the Superintendent shall recommend to the local board
  of education that the employee be dismissed or demoted under N.C. Stat. ア 115 C-325. The results
  of the second evaluation shall constitute substantial evidence of the empoyee's inadequate
  performance.  If the individual is not a low-performing school, the Superintendent will consider
  dismissal, demotion placement on an additional action plan, or other disciplinary action as approved
  by the local board of education.
Oklahama: Criteria For Evaluation of Effective Teaching and Administrative Performance
  Reqirements for Criteria Training
  All personnel designated by the local board to conduct the personnel evaluations of teachers and  
  administors shall be required to participate in training conducted by the State Department of
  Education prior to conducting such evaluations.
  All evaluation policies adopted by Oklahama School district must be based upon minimum criteria
  developed by the State Board of Education: in those school districts with previously existing
  professional negotiation agreements, the negotiated provisions must comply with the State Board
  of Education minimum criteria: the provisions of the evaluation procedure are mandatory topics of  
  professional negotiations: the criteria negotiated and adoped may exceed the minimum criteria
  promulgated by the State Board of Education.
South Carolina: VI Continuing Contract Teachers
  An informal evaluation should be conducted if a teacher consistently performs at levels commensurate
  with the expectations of the ADEPT Performance Dimensions. An informal evaluation could be goal
  Continuing cotract teachers being formally evaluated must be evaluated with a process designed or
  selected by the local district. Beginning with the 1998-99 school year, the formal evaluation process
  must include, but is not limited to and assessment of a teacher's typical performance for the school
  year in each ADEPT Performance Dimensio School districts not using the Team-Based Evaluation
  and Assistance Model ( TEAM ) to conduct formal evaluations must have State Board of Education
  approval of their locally designed evaluation process.
The 10 Performance Dimensions ( By Dr. Rolling Mills )
   1. Long -Range Plannig   2. Short -Range Planning of Instruction   3. Short -Range Plannig,
  Development and Use of Assessments   4. Establishing and Maintaining High Expectations for
  Learners  5. Using Instructional Strategies of Facilitate Learning   6. Provide Conten for Learners
  7. Monitoring an Enhancing Learning   8. Maintainig an Enviornment That Promotes Learning
  9. Managing the Classroom   10. Fulfilling Professional Responsibilities Beyond the Classroom

March in 2000, described