36 Answers to questions about incompetent teachers,
  from State Governors in the U.S.

Dismissals of incompetent teachers is a very difficult problem in any country, for they should be dismissed
or should be changed to other jobs instead of teaching students in their classrooms, and on the other
hand the right of teacher's tenure is expected to be esteemed by the school boards not to dismiss teachers
Therefore, considering like the zone of these both points, governments should make the laws and guide-
lines of this problem and have to administer them practically.
With this purpose I sent boldly questions to 25 State Governors in the U.S. at the middle of October, 2000
as follows:
 1. Do you have any standards for incompetent teachers in your state ?
 2. Do you have any cases of teachers to being changed to other jobs ?
 3. Any other information regarding incompetent teachers.
And to my questions, I added outline of Shoji Sugita's home page and the article of incompetent teachers
in Japan written by me.

Of course, I see the dismissals of teachers are not administered by the States, but are administered by
local school boards in the U.S. , and in reality I got such answers from them. However, there were
some measures to which State Governors had been making efforts and the reference texts and some
articles of this problem.
Most of these answers were sent to me by e-mail and others were mailed directly to my house, and
some of them were signed by the Governors themselves. They concerned 15 states.
I will express my gratitude to them sincerely and I think in the case like this in Japan, there would be
very few answers. We have to learn their opened mind and kind service spirit, too.
T List of State Governors and their staff who answered my inquiries:
○ Louisiana
  Governor M.J."Mike" Foster,Jr
   Cecil J.Picard, State Superintendent of Educ. Department of Educ.
○ Minnesota
   Governor Jesse Ventura
○ New Hampshire
   Governor Jeanne Shaheen
○ New Jersey
   Governor Christine Todd Whitman
   John W. Crosbie, Director Office of Public Information
○ New York
   Governor George E. Pataki
   Bart Zabin, Supervisor Investigations New York State Educ. Department Office of Teaching
○ South Carolina
   Governor Jim Hodges
   Douglas E.McTeer. Jr. Director of Educ. Policy
○ Tennessee
   Governor Don Sundquist
   Vernon Coffey, Commissioner of Education
   Janice Mann
○ Virginia
   Governor Jim Cilmore
   Wilbert Byyant, Secretary of Education
○ Virmont
   Governor Howard Dean
   Doug Chiappetta, Director Educ. and School Quality Team
○ Whoming
   Governor Jim Geringer
   Linda Stowers
〇 Uta
   Governor Mike Leavitt
   Race Davies, Policy Analyst, Uta Governor's Office Planning and Budget
〇 Washington
   Governor Gary Locke
   Jermon Lindley, Dept. of Information Services
   Governor George W. Bush
   Dr. Nolan Wood
〇 Illinois
  Governor Ryan
   Frank J. Llano, Depty Superintendent, Professional Preparation and Certification 
〇 Delaware
  William Barkley   
〇 Louisiana
  Mary Helen S.McCoy, Section Administrator, Teacher Certification and higher Education
2 Useful informations for Japanese educators
Useful information from them for Japanese educators is as follows:
1 Jurisdiction
〇 Matters related to employment and / or tenure do not fall directly within the jurisdiction of the
 Department. Employment rights are usually contractically defined by and employ's relationship
 with a school district. ...... (New York) 
〇 Any teacher who has a professional standards certificate from the state board of education and
  who has taught for 3 consecutive years or more in any school district in the state shall be entitled
  to all of the rights for notification and hearing in paragraph 1,...... (New Hampshire) 
〇 The board may suspend or dismiss any teacher or terminate any continuing contract teacher for
  incompetency, neglect of duty, immorality, insubordination, unsatisfactory performance or any
  othe good or just cause. ..... (Wyoming)
〇 The Commissione of Education becomes involved in district personnel issues only in the event
  that an appeal of a local board of education's decision is filed with the Department of Education
  by the affected individual. ...... (New Jersey)
【 Comment 】 The above-described jurisdiction is almost the same as any other state's in the U.S.
         and we can see the fact here. In Japan, the jurisdiction does not belong to each local
         school board, but does belong to each prefectural board of education. But, local school
         board has a advisory power of it.     
2 " Preliminary Report "
I will cite some topics from South Carolina, Governor's Commission on Teacher Quality, Preliminary
Report as follows:
〇 Recently, four South Carolina educators were given Milken awards for excellence in teaching.
  Milken Award winners deserve additional statewide recognition. For example, in Ohio, teachers
  receiving National Board Certification are honored at a luncheon hosted by the Governor and
  State Superintendent of Education and are presented with plaques presented commemorating
  the achievement.

〇 The General Assembly support a monetary award of $25.000 to the State Teacher of the Year,
  and recognition of the four Honor Roll teachers of the year with awards of &10.000 each.
  In addition, local district teachers of the year be awarded with $1.000 each.

〇 The General Assembly provide funds for the salaries and delivery system for an additional five
  contract days for collegial professional development based on national professional develop-
  ment standards.

〇 Teachers do not have time to prepare for the changes that are required by the State's movement
  to a standars-based curriculum and assessment. One-day in-services that are typical of the
  type of professional development offered do not provide the depth of knowledge that teachers
  need to make the sysematic changes being asked of them.

〇 If for some reason their service is disrupted for a full five-year period, teachers who become
  tenured must take course work in order to renew the cerificate.
【 Comment 】 We should study the above-mentioned ways of rewarding and promoting the
         teaching profession in Japan. There are few awards for excellent teachers now.
3 Transfer of a teacher
〇 The transfer of a teacher within a school system to a position of equal or greater salary. ..
  .. ( Wyoming)
【 Comment 】 There are very few cases of the transfers of teachers to positions of reduced-
         salaries in the U.S. In Japan, too. We have to study more about it for both countries.
4 As for Texas, Teacher Manual,Professional Development and Appraisal System,Texas Education
 Agency,Revised June 1,2000 is very useful for Japanese educators, I think.
 See the Japanese version in more detail.
 December 2000,described and more detailing in Japanese here.